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Hungary, facts and history in brief           Budapest, facts and history in brief



Sovereigns of Hungary



Apostolic Cross        Coronation Jewels        St Stephen Bazilika


Holy Crown 1        Holy Crown 2        Saint Stephen

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LIST OF HUNGARIAN SOVEREIGNS 889-1946

PRINCIPALITY OF HUNGARY TO 1000:
HOUSE OF ÁRPÁD

889-907: Árpád
907-c. 945: Zoltán
c. 945-950: Fajsz
c. 950-970: Taksony
972-997: Géza
997-1000: Saint Stephen
(Szent István, King from 1000)

KINGDOM OF HUNGARY 1000-1918:
HOUSE OF ÁRPÁD

1000-1038: Saint Stephen (Szent István)
1038-41 and 1044-46: Peter Orseolo
1041-1044: Samuel Aba
1046-1060: Andrew I (I András)
1060-1063: Béla I
1063-1074: Salomon (Salamon)
1074-1077: Géza I
1077-1095: Saint Ladislaus (Szent László)
1095-1116: Koloman (Kálmán)
1116-1131: Stephen II (II István)
1131-1141: Béla II the Blind (II Vak Béla)
1141-1162: Géza II
1162-1172: Stephen III (III István)
1162-1163: Ladislaus II (II László)
1163-1165: Stephen IV (IV István)
1172-1196: Béla III
1196-1204: Imre
1204-1205: Ladislaus III (III László)
1205-1235: Andrew II (II András)
1235-1270: Béla IV
1270-1272: Stephen V (V István)
1272-1290: Ladislaus IV (IV László)
1290-1301: Andrew III (III András)


MISCELLANEOUS HOUSES
1301-1305: Wenceslaus I (I Vencel; King of Bohemia and Poland)
1305-1308: Ottó I


HOUSE OF ANJOU
1308-1342: Charles I Robert (I Károly Robert)
1342-1382: Louis I the Great
(I Nagy Lajos; King of Poland and Naples)
1382-85 and 1386-87: Maria
1385-1386: Charles II the Little
(II Kis Károly; King of Naples)


MISCELLANEOUS HOUSES
1387-1437: Sigismund of Luxembourg
(Zsigmond; King of Bohemia)
1437-1439: Albert of Habsburg
(Duke of Austria, King of Bohemia and Germany)
1440-1444: Ulászló I (King of Poland as Ladislaus III)
1444-1457: Ladislaus V the Posthumous
(V László; King of Bohemia and Archduke of Austria)
1458-1490: Matthew I Corvinus (I Mátyás)
1490-1516: Ulászló II Rex Bene (II Ulászló Dobzse; King of Bohemia as Ladislaus II)
1516-1526: Louis II (II Lajos; King of Bohemia as Louis I)
1526-1540: John I (János Szapolyai)
1540-1570: John II Sigismund (János Zsigmond Szapolyai)


HOUSE OF HABSBURG
(Archdukes of Austria and Kings of Bohemia)
1526-1564: Ferdinand I (Roman Emperor, King of Germany)
1564-1576: Maximilian I (I Miksa; Roman Emperor, King of Germany)
1576-1608: Rudolf I (Roman Emperor, King of Germany)
1608-1619: Matthew II (II Mátyás; Roman Emperor, King of Germany)
1619-1637: Ferdinand II (Roman Emperor, King of Germany)
1637-1657: Ferdinand III (Roman Emperor, King of Germany)
1633-1654: Ferdinand IV
1655-1705: Leopold I (I Lipót; Roman Emperor, King of Germany)
1705-1711: Joseph I (I József; Roman Emperor, King of Germany, Naples and Sicily)
1711-1740: Charles III (III Károly; King of Germany, Naples and Sicily, Duke of Parma)
1740-1780: Maria Theresa (Maria Terézia; Duchess of Parma)
1780-1790: Joseph II (II József; Roman Emperor, King of Germany and Bohemia)
1790-1792: Leopold II (II Lipót; Roman Emperor, King of Germany and Bohemia, Grand Duke of Tuscany)
1792-1835: Francis I (I Ferenc; Roman Emperor, Emperor of Austria, King of Germany, Bohemia and Lombardo-Venetia)
1835-1848: Ferdinand V (Emperor of Austria, King of Lombardo-Venetia)
1848-1916: Francis Joseph I (I Ferenc József; Emperor of Austria, King of Lombardo-Venetia)
1916-1918: Charles IV (IV Károly; Emperor of Austria)


REPUBLIC OF HUNGARY 1918-1919

KINGDOM OF HUNGARY 1919-1946:
1919-1922: Charles IV (nominally)
1922-1946: Ottó II (nominally)

REPUBLIC OF HUNGARY FROM 1946.

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HUNGARIAN CORONATIONS

ESZTERGOM:
1000: Saint Stephen

BRATISLAVA ST MARTIN'S CATHEDRAL/SLOVAKIA
(Bratislava, Dóm sv. Martina):
1564: Maximilian I
1576: Rudolf I
1608: Matthew II
1619: Ferdinand II
1637: Ferdinand III
1633: Ferdinand IV
1655: Leopold I
1681: Joseph I
1712: Charles III
1792: Francis I
1741: Maria Theresa
1790: Leopold II
1792: Francis I
1830: Ferdinand V
Joseph II was never crowned


BUDAPEST ST MATTHEW'S CORONATION CHURCH
(Budapest, Mátyás-templom, koronázótemplom):
1309: Charles I Robert (Buda coronation)
1867: Francis Joseph I
1916: Charles IV


SZÉKESFEHÉRVÁR CORONATION BASILICA (Koronázó-Bazilika):
1038: Peter Orseolo
1041: Samuel Aba
1046: Andrew I
1060: Béla I
1063: Salomon
1074: Géza I
1077: Saint Ladislaus
1095: Koloman
1116: Stephen II
1131: Béla II the Blind
1141: Géza II
1162: Stephen III
1162: Ladislaus II
1163: Stephen IV
1172: Béla III
1196: Imre
1204: Ladislaus III
1205: Andrew II
1235: Béla IV
1270: Stephen V
1272: Ladislaus IV
1290: Andrew III
1301: Wenceslaus I
1305: Ottó I
1310: Charles I Robert (Székesfehérvár coronation)
1342: Louis I the Great
1382: Maria
1385: Charles II
1387: Sigismund of Luxembourg
1437: Albrecht Habsburg
1440: Ulászló I
1440: Ladislaus V the Posthumous
1458: Matthew I Corvinus
1490: Ulászló II Rex Bene
1516: Louis II
1526: John I
1540: John II Sigismund

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BURIAL CHURCHES OF HUNGARIAN SOVEREIGNS

BUDAPEST MARGARET ISLAND:
Stephen V (1272)

BUDAPEST ST STEPHEN'S BASILICA
(Budapest, Szent István Bazilika):
Reliquary containing Saint Stephen's forearm

BUDAPEST MINORITES CHURCH:
Andrew III (1301)

BUDAPEST ST MATTHEW'S CHURCH
(Budapest, Mátyás-templom):

Béla III (1196; the tomb was transferred from Székesfehérvár in 1860)

CRACOW ROYAL BASILICA/POLAND
(Kraków, Bazylika Królewska, Wawel):

Ulászló I (1444; king's corpse was never found following the disastrous battle of Várna, therefore the king's tomb in Cracow is empty. In Várna (Bulgaria) there is Ulászló I's mausoleum and the legend has it that the king had salvaged himself from the battlefield of Várna and died many years later in Madeira, where he was buried under the church at Madalena do Mar)

CSANÁD (now Cenad/ROMANIA):
Ladislaus IV (1290)

ESZTERGOM CATHEDRAL:
Béla IV (1270; the original cathedral had been ruined by the Turks, so was the royal tomb. The new cathedral was built in the 19th c.)

GRAZ IMPERIAL MAUSOLEUM/AUSTRIA (Graz, Dom):
Ferdinand II (1637)

MONTE CHURCH OF OUR LADY OF MONTE/MADEIRA-PORTUGAL
(Monte, Igreja Nossa Senhora do Monte):

Charles IV (1922)

NAGYVÁRAD (now Oradea)/ROMANIA:
Maria (1395)
Sigismund of Luxembourg (1437)

PRAGUE ST VITUS CATHEDRAL/CZECH REPUBLIC (Praha, chram sv. Vita):
Ladislaus V the Posthumous (1457)
Ferdinand I (1564)
Maximilian I (1576)
Rudolf I (1612)

SOMOGYVÁR:
Saint Ladislaus (1095)

SZÉKESFEHÉRVÁR CORONATION BASILICA (Koronázó-Bazilika):
Following the Turkish conquest of Hungary in the 16th century the Coronation Basilica of the Hungarian kings at Székesfehérvár was despoiled and then in 1601 blown up by the Turks.
In effect nearly all the royal tombs were destroyed.
Saint Stephen (1038)
Béla II the Blind (1141)
Béla III (1196; king's tomb was transferred to Buda in 1860)
Louis I the Great (1382)
Albert of Habsburg (1439)
Matthew I Corvinus (1490)

SZEKSZÁRD ABBEY (now ruins):
Béla I (1063)

TIHANY CHURCH:
Andrew II (1235)

VÁC CATHEDRAL (does not exist):
Géza I (1077; the king had been buried in a cathedral which was destroyed by the Mongols in the 13th century. A new cathedral was later built nearby)

VÁRNA (BULGARIA):
Ulászló I (1444; the king's corpse was never found following the disastrous battle of Várna, but a Royal Mausoleum was built in 1935 on the battlefield where the king had probably perished)

VIENNA AUGUSTINIAN CHURCH/AUSTRIA (Wien, Augustinerkirche):
Urns containing the hearts of Hungarian sovereigns since 1619 (Heart Vault or Herzgrüftel) and an empty sarcophagus made for Leopold II

VIENNA CAPUCHIN CHURCH/AUSTRIA (Wien, Kapuzinerkirche):
Matthew II (1619)
Ferdinand III (1657)
Leopold I (1705)
Joseph I (1711)
Charles III (1740)
Maria Theresa (1780)
Joseph II (1790)
Leopold II (1792)
Francis I (1835)
Ferdinand V (1875)
Francis Joseph I (1916)

ZBRASLAV CISTERCIAN ABBEY/CZECH REPUBLIC (Zbraslavsky klaster):
Wenceslaus I (1306)

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HUNGARIAN ROYAL RESIDENCES

(The list includes only the most important and existing royal residences)

BUDAPEST:
Royal Castle (Vár; official royal residence from the 18th c. to 1918).

BRATISLAVA (Pozsony)/SLOVAKIA:
Royal Castle (Hrad; official royal residence 16th-18th c.).

GÖDÖLLÕ:
Grassalkovich Mansion (royal residence purchased by the Hungarian state in 1867 for the Hungarian Royal Family.
A favourite residence of Queen Elizabeth, consort of Francis Joseph I, king of Hungary and emperor of Austria).

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HUNGARIAN REGALIA

The most important items of the Hungarian regalia are kept at the Hungarian Parliament in Budapest and include:

-Saint Stephen's Crown (11th century),
-Royal Sceptre (12th century),
-Royal Orb (14th century),
-Hungarian Coronation Sword (early 16th century),
-Hungarian Coronation Mantle (11th century). Until 1918 the crown of Hungarian queens (early 19th c.) was kept in the Treasury at Vienna from where it was removed in 1918 by King Charles IV (Emperor Charles I of Austria) and taken to his Swiss exile. Its further whereabouts are unknown.

THE HOLY CROWN OF ST STEPHEN
BY ALEXANDER BORG
(This article was first published in "Royalty Digest")


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Apostolic Cross        Coronation Jewels        St Stephen Bazilika


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