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United States of America, facts in brief

(USA), the world's fourth largest country, the central part of North America with Alaska, Hawaii, Puerto Rico, and some small Pacific Ocean islands. Bordered by Canada , and Mexico and the Atlantic and the Pacific Oceans. The USA has many large tracks of fertile land modern agriculture, abundant natural resources and a large internal market including a wealth of mineral deposits, including coal, oil, gold, silver, lead, copper, iron ore, zinc, uranium, and phosphates. Diverse climatic differences allow agricultural diversity of crops of maize, wheat, soya beans, cotton, and tobacco. Fishing, forestry, and livestock are also substantial. Major exports are electrical goods, machinery, chemicals, motor vehicles, cereals, and aircraft. The indigenous peoples probably came from Asia across the Bering land bridge probably 30,000 years ago. From Alaska, they spread out to populate the whole continent including Central and South America. By the beginning of the 17th century, it is estimated that there were around 1.5 million Amerindians.
In the 17th century began European colonisation, mostly on the east by the British and French. In 1763 the Treaty of Paris marked Britain's triumph. The first British colonies New England and Georgia were well established and enjoyed considerable measure of independence. British attempts to regain control met with resistance and armed encounters at Lexington and Concord in 1775 led to revolt and the proclamation of the separation of thirteen colonies from Britain, as the United States of America, in the Declaration of Independence 4 July 1776. The War of Independence lasting till 1783, the Americans were assisted by France and Spain. The Peace of Paris in 1783 recognised US independence. In 1787 the Constitution established a federal system, dividing power between central government and the member states, with an President and the Senate and the House of Representatives, and an independent judiciary headed by the Supreme Court. Major expansion followed with the Louisiana Purchase of 1803, the acquisition of Florida in 1810-19, and of Texas, California, and the south-west following the Mexican-American War of 1846-8. The territories of the Louisiana Purchase and seized land was later admitted in the union. Political crisis in the middle of 19th century was dominated by a over slavery and states' rights , leading to the secession of the Southern states and their reconquest in the American Civil War of 1861-5. The late 19th century marks the westward expansion of European settlement and the purchase of Alaska in 1867. After the Spanish-American War of 1898 most Spanish overseas territories fell the USA. Participating in both world wars ended the USA isolation and became a Super Power. After the disintegration of the Soviet Union in 1991 US foreign policy has focused on the resolution of major regional disputes and providing UN military and peacekeeping operations around the world.

Capital is Washington DC.

Area is 9,529,063 km2.

Population of over 260 million.

Official language is English.

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