(USA), the world's fourth largest country, the central
part of North America with Alaska, Hawaii, Puerto Rico, and some small
Pacific Ocean islands. Bordered by Canada , and Mexico and the Atlantic
and the Pacific Oceans. The USA has many large tracks of fertile land
modern agriculture, abundant natural resources and a large internal
market including a wealth of mineral deposits, including coal, oil,
gold, silver, lead, copper, iron ore, zinc, uranium, and phosphates.
Diverse climatic differences allow agricultural diversity of crops
of maize, wheat, soya beans, cotton, and tobacco. Fishing, forestry,
and livestock are also substantial. Major exports are electrical goods,
machinery, chemicals, motor vehicles, cereals, and aircraft. The indigenous
peoples probably came from Asia across the Bering land bridge probably
30,000 years ago. From Alaska, they spread out to populate the whole
continent including Central and South America. By the beginning of
the 17th century, it is estimated that there were around 1.5 million
In the 17th century began European colonisation, mostly on the east by the
British and French. In 1763 the Treaty of Paris marked Britain's triumph.
The first British colonies New England and Georgia were well established
and enjoyed considerable measure of independence. British attempts to regain
control met with resistance and armed encounters at Lexington and Concord
in 1775 led to revolt and the proclamation of the separation of thirteen
colonies from Britain, as the United States of America, in the Declaration
of Independence 4 July 1776. The War of Independence lasting till 1783,
the Americans were assisted by France and Spain. The Peace of Paris in 1783
recognised US independence. In 1787 the Constitution established a federal
system, dividing power between central government and the member states,
with an President and the Senate and the House of Representatives, and an
independent judiciary headed by the Supreme Court. Major expansion followed
with the Louisiana Purchase of 1803, the acquisition of Florida in 1810-19,
and of Texas, California, and the south-west following the Mexican-American
War of 1846-8. The territories of the Louisiana Purchase and seized land
was later admitted in the union. Political crisis in the middle of 19th
century was dominated by a over slavery and states' rights , leading to
the secession of the Southern states and their reconquest in the American
Civil War of 1861-5. The late 19th century marks the westward expansion
of European settlement and the purchase of Alaska in 1867. After the Spanish-American
War of 1898 most Spanish overseas territories fell the USA. Participating
in both world wars ended the USA isolation and became a Super Power. After
the disintegration of the Soviet Union in 1991 US foreign policy has focused
on the resolution of major regional disputes and providing UN military and
peacekeeping operations around the world.
Capital is Washington DC.
Area is 9,529,063 km2.
Population of over 260 million.
Official language is English.
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