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Egypt facts and history in brief, part 4

Africa & Sinai Peninsula

Geography of Egypt

Excerpted from Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

Geographic coordinates: 27 00 N, 30 00 E.
Area: 995,450 kmē Area - comparative: slightly more than three times the size of New Mexico (US).

Land boundaries: total: 2,689 km. Border countries: Gaza Strip 11 km, Israel 255 km, Libya 1,150 km, Sudan 1,273 km.
Coastline: 2,450 km
Maritime claims: contiguous zone: 24 nm; continental shelf: 200-m depth or to the depth of exploitation; exclusive economic zone: 200 nm; territorial sea: 12 nm.

Climate: desert; hot, dry summers with moderate winters.

Terrain: vast desert plateau interrupted by Nile valley and delta.

Elevation extremes:
Lowest point: Qattara Depression -133 m
Highest point: Mount Catherine 2,629 m

Natural resources: petroleum, natural gas, iron ore, phosphates, manganese, limestone, gypsum, talc, asbestos, lead, zinc.

Land use:

  • arable land: 2%
  • permanent crops: 0%
  • permanent pastures: 0%
  • forests and woodland: 0%
  • other: 98% (1993 est.)
  • irrigated land: 32,460 kmē (1993 est.)
Natural hazards: periodic droughts; frequent earthquakes, flash floods, landslides, volcanic activity; hot, driving windstorm called khamsin occurs in spring; dust storms, sandstorms.

Environment - current issues: agricultural land being lost to urbanisation and windblown sands; increasing soil salination below Aswan High Dam; desertification; oil pollution threatening coral reefs, beaches, and marine habitats; other water pollution from agricultural pesticides, raw sewage, and industrial effluents; very limited natural fresh water resources away from the Nile which is the only perennial water source; rapid growth in population overstraining natural resources.

Environment - international agreements: party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands, Whaling signed, but not ratified: Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol.

Geography - note: controls Sinai Peninsula, only land bridge between Africa and remainder of Eastern Hemisphere; controls Suez Canal, shortest sea link between Indian Ocean and Mediterranean Sea; size, and juxtaposition to Israel, establish its major role in Middle Eastern geopolitics.

Other pages inthis series.

Egypts facts and history in brief, part 1, History, part 1

Egypts facts and history in brief, part 2, History, part 2

Egypts facts and history in brief, part 3, Politics

Egypts facts and history in brief, part 4, Geography

Egypts facts and history in brief, part 5, Economy

Egypts facts and history in brief, part 6, Pharaos of Egypt

All text is available under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License.

This information is correct in 2003. E. & O.E.

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