North Island - New Zealand
Kerikeri, in Northland, New Zealand is one of the earliest European settlements in New Zealand.
The Reverend Samuel Marsden, and his Church Missionary Society settled here in 1819.
The historic Kemp House was built in 1822 and the Stone Store in 1832.
Today's Kerikeri is best known for it's citrus fruit industry, home crafts and cottage industries.
It is often described as the Cradle Of The Nation, being the site of the first permanent mission station in the country, and it has some of the most historic buildings in the country.
A rapidly expanding centre of sub-tropical and allied horticulture, Kerikeri lies at the western extremity of the Kerikeri Inlet, a northwestern arm of the Bay of Islands, where fresh water of the Kerikeri River enters the salty Pacific Ocean.
According to the 2001 New Zealand Census of Population and Dwellings, the resident population was 4,881, an increase of 16.3 percent since the 1996 census.
Provisional results from the 2006 census indicate that the population is still growing rapidly, with an increase of fractionally under 20 percent to 5,856.
It is a far cry from the village established by New Zealand's pioneering missionaries.
They called it Gloucestertown, or Gloucester Town, but neither name endured.
The Maori word Kerikeri is correctly pronounced almost as Keddi Keddi, or even Kiddee Kiddee, but the town's name is generally pronounced Kerry Kerry.
Kerikeri was the first place in New Zealand where grape vines were planted. Samuel Marsden planted 100 vines on September 25, 1819 and noted in his journal that New Zealand promised to be very favourable to the vine.
The plough was first used in New Zealand at Kerikeri, by Rev. J. G. Butler, on 3 May 1820.
Origins and naming
The origin of the name Kerikeri is not exactly known, and there have been many conflicting definitions given over the years.
It is likely Kerikeri derives its name from the river and in fact, after visiting the area in 1815, John Nicholson wrote "the river that discharged itself into the cove was called by the natives Tecaddiecaddie....". But where did the river get its name?
The definition of the word Kerikeri most widely known by pakeha (New Zealanders of European descent) is 'dig dig', or 'to keep digging'.
It is known that Maori had extensive gardens in the area when Europeans arrived.
Another definition derives from Kerikeri te ana wai - "the churning or boiling over of the waters".
That would have aptly described the freshwater river tumbling into the salt water over the falls which were then higher (being blasted early in the 1900s to accommodate a bridge).
However, some Maori say it derives from hukerikeri which means "bubbling up", and there is a sad reasoning behind this.
Hongi Hika, a famous or infamous chief depending on whether one fought with or against him, is reputed to have fathered the child of a captured slave at Kororipo Pa.
As this was unacceptable to the tribe, the baby was placed in the water to drown but persistently rose to the surface, hence the "bubbling up".
What are now called Wharepuke Falls, upriver from the Stone Store Basin, were called the Kerikeri Falls until the 1930s when given the name Wharepoke which referred to the large adjacent area of native bush.
A French doctor, Messier Lesson, visited Kerikeri in 1824 and wrote that among stomach ailments suffered by Maori was "gravelle" (gravel) which they called Kiddee Kiddee.
He said it was also the word for a cascade of water.
To cloud the issue there have been some persistent claims that the falls referred to by the missionaries as "The Kiddikiddi" were what we now call the Rainbow Falls.
That is impossible because although Nicholson visited and referred to Tecaddiecaddie in 1815 it was not until 1822 that the Rainbow Falls were "discovered" by the missionaries Francis Hall and James Kemp.
The local Kerikeri slogan is "It's So Nice They Named It Twice".
In the early 1980s, an anonymous backpacker wrote those words in the Visitors' Book at the Kerikeri Youth Hostel.
It was brought to the attention of the then editor of the local newspaper, the Kerikeri Chronicle, who gave it publicity, and it quickly became adopted as a quasi-official slogan.
Kerikeri is a former winner of the "New Zealand's Top Small Town" title bestowed annually by North and South magazine, and this has since been the main focus of most tourism marketing of the town.
Originally called the Mission House, and then for more than 100 years Kemp House, but now again called Mission House, this is the oldest wooden structure still standing in New Zealand.
A much visited and photographed building, it is administered along with the Stone Store (see below) by the New Zealand Historic Places Trust.
It was built by the Church Missionary Society for the Rev John Butler (New Zealand's first clergyman) who became the first occupant in 1822, but only for a short while.
There was a succession of occupants until 1832 when the mission blacksmith James Kemp and his wife Charlotte moved in with their family.
The Kemps acquired ownership of the house and surrounding land in 1859 by trading land they owned at nearby Kororipo Point.
From then on the Mission House became Kemp House and it remained in the Kemp family until 1976 when it was gifted to the Nation by Ernest Kemp, a great grandson of the missionary James Kemp and Charlotte Kemp.
St. James Church
St James', the wooden church on the hill above the Stone Store, is the third built in the area, and second on this picturesque site overlooking the basin.
The missionaries' first little combined chapel and school was built near the water and dedicated on April 19, 1824.
It was replaced in 1829 when a 38 ft by 18 ft (11.5 × 5.5 metre) lath and plaster structure was erected on the present site of St James.
It came complete with a town clock which was later incorporated in the Stone Store.
The new and slightly larger St James, built of weatherboard and battens, was dedicated in 1878.
It was another 85 years before the church was extended to its present day size to cater for a growing congregation (1963).
In 1968 a damaging tornado hit Kerikeri with enough force to skew St James' off line.
Services had to be held elsewhere until a major repair and restoration was completed.
The church bell came from HMNZS Black Prince, a light cruiser which served the Royal New Zealand Navy with distinction until it was decommissioned in 1960.
The Stone Store, a former storehouse, is the oldest stone building in New Zealand, construction having begun on 19 April 1832.
The keystone above the door bearing the date 1833 is thought to have been carved by the stonemason William Parrott who cut the Sydney sandstone in situ, but construction of the building was not actually completed until mid-1836.
Stone was used because the missionaries needed a vermin-free, fireproof area for their supplies and provisions, and for improved security from inquisitive Maori.
There was a plan to build a mill where the bridge exists now, and to protect the flour produced from locally grown wheat in the store. But the mill never eventuated, and the millstones brought out from England went inland to Waimate North instead.
Curiously enough, when work started on the building, Maori were already moving out of the district, and when it was finally completed there were very few Maori remaining at Kerikeri.
Furthermore, there were rumblings within the missionary community that Kerikeri was becoming the backwater of missionary activity, eliminating the need to store goods and provisions there.
It was considered a folly at the time, but one that blesses Kerikeri today.
Over the years, the Stone Store suffered the cumulative effects of adjacent traffic movements and the ravages of normal wear and tear.
Costly remedial work was required and in the 21st century a bypass was constructed and opened on 23 June 2008, to divert traffic and protect the building for posterity.
The old stone store bridge is currently (July 2008) being removed.
The building has been restored to its original state, but does not include the tower on the roof containing the clock removed from the chapel further up the hill, which was removed as a safety measure a long time ago.
Rewa's Village was constructed opposite the Stone Store in 1969 as a community effort to faithfully recreate a kainga (fishing village) which existed when Europeans arrived in New Zealand.
It was named after Ngapuhi chief Rewa (also known as Maanu), who was one of three chiefly brothers originally belonging to the Ngai Tawake hapu; the other two brothers being; Te Wharerahi and Moka 'Kainga-mataa' who used to live here in the 1820s-1830s.
Kainga were sited close to fresh water and local fishing waters or gardens, and sometimes near fortified pa such as Kororipo which was just over the water.
Rewa's Village has all the features of a true kainga, including a marae area, chief's whare (house), kauta (cooking shelter), whata (bench where food was placed), tall whata, weapons store, pataka (raised food store), enclosure for the tohunga (a wise person who advised the community on just about everything), rahui (a post marking tapu or out of bounds limits), whare made of bark, waka tiwai (fishing canoe), bird snare, hangi pit (ground oven), genuine historic canoes, family enclosure, rua (storage area ) for kumara (sweet potato) and a paepae haumati (the basic toilet system which was flushed twice daily by the tide).
There are dozens of arts and crafts enterprises in the Kerikeri area and the Art and Craft Trail has become well known to tourists.
This involves a visit to about 20 arts and crafts outlets in the area.
Since the advent of the Kerikeri campus of Northland Polytechnic in the 1990s, Kerikeri has become the centre of glass artists in Northland.
Although the water at the Stone Store basin is a part of the Bay of Islands where overseas yachties tie up regularly, especially in the hurricane season, Kerikeri township does not have a beach.
But not too far away there are the beaches at Matauri Bay which boasts excellent views of the Cavalli Islands, Te Ngaere and Tapuaetahi.
Just before dawn, at Manginangina in the Puketi Forest, hundreds of native birds gather to sing in the day.
This has become a popular tourist attraction.
These were gifted to the nation by Caroline Little who was captivated by them in 1928 on her first visit from China.
The Bay Of Islands has been renowned for its game fishing since being popularised by the American author Zane Grey in the 1930s.
Charter operators are busy all year round.
Kerikeri Airport on the western perimeter of the town is a busy commuter link with Auckland, and has a very active Bay Of Islands Aero Club, and flying schools (Quantum Aviation Training School).
Joyrides and charter flights (Quantum Aviation) are available.
Kororipo Pa stands at the head of the Kerikeri Inlet which was known as Te Waha o te Riri (the inlet of war) not long after the missionaries arrived.
The Waikeri Garden Club thrives with a mixed membership of well over 100 keen gardeners.
The club meets on the fourth Tuesday of each month at The Kerikeri RSA in Cobham Road at 10.30 am.
Interesting speakers are invited to attend, and members are asked to bring a plate for a shared lunch afterwards.
The Maori name for these falls on the Kerikeri River is Waianiwaniwa which means Waters of the Rainbow.
They are one of the most visited attractions in the district.
It is possible to drive almost to the falls, with walking also possible from the Stone Store basin.
The Kerikeri Cruising Club at Doves Bay is very active due to the boating waters on Kerikeri's doorstep.
The club has modern facilities including a large marina which doubled in size in 2003.
The Kerikeri High School sailing team has been New Zealand schools' champion several times, and when representing New Zealand has defeated the Australians in cross-Tasman series (their last victory being in October 2003).
Many Kerikeri sailors have gone on to Olympic Games or world championship and international match racing circuits, and had a hand in New Zealand winning the America's Cup in 1996.
Shopping, and dining out
Kerikeri has a thriving retail economy with two large supermarkets and many small retailers.
A Farmers Market offering fresh locally grown produce is held every Sunday morning in the Post Shop carpark and has proved to be a very popular event.
Kerikeri has several restaurants offering foods from around the world.
Steam driven sawmill
This is a popular with tourists and local steam engine buffs.
The mill is powered by a large steam plant which is fired by waste wood from the trees being milled.
As well as the at nearby Matauri Bay, Te Ngaere etc, and various places to swim in the Kerikeri River such as the Fairy Pools, Kerikeri has a modern swimming pool with diving facilities.
Although sited at the Kerikeri High School it is a community pool.
Kerikeri High School is a secondary (years 7-13) school with a roll of 1302.
Kerikeri Primary School and Riverview School are contributing primary (years 1-6) schools with rolls of 547 and 381 respectively.
Springbank School is a private composite (years 1-13) school with a roll of 255.
All these schools are coeducational.
Riverview School has a decile rating of 8, and the others all have a decile rating of 7.
For more information about Kerikeri see Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
This page was retrieved and condensed from (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kerikeri) see Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia, January 2009.
All text is available under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License (see Copyrights for details).
This information was correct in January 2009. E. & O.E.
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