Newcastle upon Tyne, often shortened to Newcastle, is a city in the county of Tyne and Wear in North East England.
It is also a unitary authority with a population of around 259,000 (2001 census).
Newcastle is the main city in North East England, and around the 14th largest city in England.
As such, it is one of England's core cities.
Technically, people from Newcastle are Novocastrians, although the term Geordie is now more commonly used.
Facts at a glance
Status: Metropolitan borough, City (1882)
Region: North East England
Ceremonial County: Tyne and Wear
Area: 113.44 kmē
Administration HQ: Newcastle upon Tyne
ONS code: 00CJ
Population: 266,589 - (2003 est.)
History and development
Newcastle, known at the time as "Pons Aelius" was founded by the Roman Emperor Hadrian, whose Wall is still visible in parts of Newcastle, particularly along the West Road that leads out from the city centre towards the A69 road.
The course of the Wall can also be traced eastwards to Segedunum, which is today known as Wallsend.
After the Roman withdrawal from Britain, Newcastle became part of the powerful Anglo-Saxon kingdom of Northumbria and was known throughout this period as Monkchester.
Pilgrims traveled to the City to visit the Holy Well of Jesus' Mount, in what is now Jesmond.
One of Newcastle's biggest modern shopping streets, Pilgrim Street, is so-called because of the popularity of the well.
Newcastle's development as a major city owed much to its central role in the export of coal from the Northumberland coalfields.
Mosley Street, in the centre of the City, is claimed to be the first in the world to have electric street lighting though this is contested.
Heavy industries in Newcastle declined in the second half of the twentieth century; office and retail employment are now the City's staples.
Architecture and urban development
The city has an extensive neoclassical centre, largely developed in the 1830s by Richard Grainger and John Dobson, and recently extensively restored.
Grey Street, which curves down from a monument to the parliamentary reformer Earl Grey towards the valley of the River Tyne, has a claim to be one of England's most beautiful urban streets.
A large portion of Grainger Town was demolished in the 1960s to make way for the Eldon Square shopping centre.
One of the major meeting areas in Newcastle is Old Eldon Square, often referred to as 'The Green', and is a congregation site for hundreds of people every day.
There are currently plans with the Newcastle City Council to change Old Eldon Square slightly, but may not go ahead.
For a more information about Newcastle upon Tyne see Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
This page was retrieved and condensed from (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Newcastle upon Tyne) November 2005
All text is available under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License (see Copyrights for details).
This information was correct in November 2005. E. & O.E.
Sarolta and I visited this place during our trip around the British Isles in 1978.
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